Errol Morris - Retrospective

The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara

Errol Morris

It is the story of America as seen through the eyes of the former Secretary of Defense, Robert S. McNamara. One of the most controversial and influential figures in world politics, he takes us on an insider’s view of the seminal events of the 20th Century. Why was this past Century the most destructive and deadly in all of human history? Are we doomed to repeat our mistakes? Are we free to make choices, or are we at the mercy of inexorable historical forces and ideologies? From the firebombing of 100,000 Japanese civilians in Tokyo in 1945 to the brink of nuclear catastrophe during the Cuban missile crisis to the devastating effects of the Vietnam War, ‘The Fog of War’ examines the psychology and reasoning of the government decision-makers who send men to war. How were decisions made and for what reason? What can we learn from these historical events? As American forces occupy Iraq and the possibility of additional military conflict looms large, ‘The Fog of War’ is essential viewing for anyone who wants to understand how the American government justifies the use of military force. Combining extraordinary archival footage, recreations, newly declassified White House recordings, and an original score by the Oscar nominated composer, Philip Glass, the film is a disquieting and powerful essay on war, rationality, and human nature. ‘The Fog of War’ won the Academy Award for Best Documentary.


Errol Morris

Errol Morris came a long way before deciding on what he would really like to do. He never finished his studies in physics at Princeton and philosophy at Berkeley. One anecdote gives the best impression of that. ‘You just don’t want to look through my telescope’, Morris said to his professor, and he replied: ‘Errol, that’s not a telescope, it’s a kaleidoscope’! At that time Morris met Tom Luddy, director of Pacific Film Archives who will later introduce him to famous Werner Herzog.

In the middle of 70s Morris got interested in a story about Ed Gein, serial killer who inspired famous film psychopaths like Hannibal Lecter, Leatherface and Norman Bates. Morris filmed about 100 hours of material and interviews during one year but his plan to write a book or make a film never saw the light of day. It was an interesting attempt, though, because of his interview technique and somewhat morbid theme that evoked his later films.

His directorial debut, documentary ‘Gates of Heaven’ (1978) is important not only for his career, but because it made Werner Herzog eat his shoe. Herzog didn’t believe that Morris is going to finish this film so he made a bet. He lost, and a documentary was made about Herzog’s gastronomic adventure ‘Werner Herzog Eats His Shoe’. Let’s just say that he didn’t eat the shoe sole with the explanation that you don’t eat bones when eating a chicken also.

Morris got an idea for ‘Gates of Heaven’ when reading an article about companies which arrange pet funerals. He left out the narrative when describing a job, rituals needed to burry the pets and feelings of their owners. It’s his well know characteristic – letting the scenes talk for themselves.

His next work, ‘Vernon, Florida’ (1981), was even more morbid. Film portrayed inhabitants of one small city in Florida who cut their limbs (!) so they could collect the insurance money (!!). Original title ‘Nub City’ had to be changed because he got several life threats from some of the protagonists who were afraid that their con will be revealed.

His made his next film ‘The Thin Blue Line’ (1988) while working as a private investigator. His job experience helped him a lot in investigation of a Texas police officer murder and a way that police (intentionally?) ‘forgot’ contradictory statements of witnesses so an innocent man ended behind the bars. Combining the original statements with reconstructions, film gives a nice insight into the mess and contradictions of that case, and with its title it ironically questions ‘the thin blue line’ which separates the society from the anarchy.

In the 1992 he made ‘A Brief History in Time’, Stephen Hawking biography, and he’ll get back to biography approach in ‘Mr. Death: the Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr.’ (1999), film about controversial mister from the title, technical ‘innovator’ when it comes to death penalties.

‘Fast, Cheap and Out of Control’ (1997) is considered to be one of his best films. Morris described 4 people with interesting jobs: lion tamer, topiary gardener, robotic scientist and man whose specialty are hairless mole-rats. Film is important because Morris used for the first time ‘interrotron’ technique of filming which he invented himself. With this technique the interviewed can address to the interviewee and look at the camera at the same time. Morris also used documentary, narrative and animated episodes (director of photography Robert Richardson did the same thing in Stone’s ‘JFK’ and ‘Natural Born Killers’), and in editing he often mixed narrative lines linking them to each other and investigating their similarities. Although it was well accepted by the audience American Academy labeled it as ‘unfictional’ film instead of documentary film (probably because of the interventions that reminded of narrative films), so it couldn’t run for an Oscar.

But in 2003 he got an Oscar for ‘Fogs of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara’, documentary about career of a former Secretary of Defense. Expression ‘fog of war’ is connected to the uncertainness which comes down to battle field when battles begin.

In his career he also made few commercials (for Adidas, Levi’s, Toyota), short film screened at the 75th Oscar Awards Ceremony, and his narrative debut ‘The Dark Wind’ (1991) wasn’t accepted by the audience or the critics. He is in production of a new film dealing with Abu Ghraib: ‘S. O. P.: Standard Operating Procedure’.

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The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara

2003, 95', color, 35 mm

Directed by:
Errol Morris

Peter Donahue

Edited by:
Doug Abel, Chyld King, Karen Schmeer

Philip Glass

Julie Ahlberg, Errol Morris, Michael Williams

Produced by:
Sony Pictures Classics, Radical Media